The Nugent score reflects the relative abundance of large Gram-positive rods lactobacilliGram-negative and Gram-variable rods and cocci i. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess differences in the vaginal microbiota between smokers and non-smokers and to begin to assess how smoking cessation affects the vaginal microbiome. Smoking may then reduce the abundance of protective vaginal lactobacilli in part by promoting phage induction. Women who smoke have significantly lower levels of mid-cycle and luteal phase estradiol compared with non-smokers, [ 24 ] and it is well documented that the vaginal microenvironment is influenced by endogenous estrogen [ 25 — 27 ]. Numerous studies indicate BV is more common in smokers than non-smokers, smoking has a dose-dependent relationship with BV and the associations persist after controlling for confounders [ 1 — 12 ]. Ongoing work is evaluating the genomic heterogeneity of L. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Vaginal microflora in postmenopausal women who have not received estrogen replacement therapy.
Association between cigarette smoking and the vaginal microbiota: a pilot study
We were unable to conduct broad testing for sexually transmitted infections, and larger studies may be able to detect other known CSTs, such as CSTs dominated by L. Induction of vaginal Lactobacillus phages by the cigarette smoke chemical benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide. Support Center Support Center. Further, smokers tended to be older over age 40 and possibly peri-menopausal and therefore less likely to use HCs. Another option is to use personal lubricant lube during sexual activity or masturbation. Discussion The cross-sectional study Phase A suggests that women who smoke cigarettes are significantly more likely to have a vaginal microbiota characterized by low proportions of Lactobacillus spp. It is based on a linear scale ranging from 0—